生猪 散养户，一头育肥猪从出生到宰杀，一般要饲养 6～10个月，而每年春、秋季集中免疫注射或 仔猪 骟割免疫时， 猪瘟 、猪 口蹄疫 包括原高致病性猪 蓝耳病 都是几针同时进行。 Beichuan is a minority mountainous county. There are scattered live pig farmers in the local countryside . A fattening pig is usually raised for 6 to 10 months from birth to slaughter. When pigs are castrated or immunized in spring or autumn , pigs Blast , foot-and-mouth disease of swine, including the original highly pathogenic swine blue ear disease, are carried out simultaneously. 养殖 户对我们的防疫工作不理解、不信任，更给我们基层动物防疫工作带来很大的困难和压力。 As vaccine allergic reactions can happen at any time, farmers do not understand and trust our epidemic prevention work, and it also brings great difficulties and pressure to our grassroots animal epidemic prevention work. The situation will be encountered and the measures taken will be summarized later for peer reference.
I. Analysis of Allergy Causes
1. The direct cause of the allergic reaction after the injection of the vaccine is the existence of heterogeneous animal heterologous proteins in the vaccine, and the vaccine strains were collected after breeding in specific cells. Due to conditions, the strains and cells could not be separated. The culture fragments and fragments are completely separated, so that the protein in the cell culture fragments and fragments and the cell body can become heterologous proteins. After the vaccine is injected into the pig body, the antigen-antibody labeling reaction occurs, which causes the pig to develop an allergic reaction.
2. Vaccine adjuvant is another factor that induces allergic reactions in pigs. 水肿 、组织损伤和组织肿胀，这种迟发性变态反应是导致猪群过敏的又一因素。 Mineral oil, aluminum glue, and peak glue that can be used as immune adjuvants. Their role in the vaccine is to produce a sterile abscess to facilitate the slow absorption of the vaccine. As a foreign body, mineral oil and white oil may cause tissue edema , tissue damage and tissue swelling, which delayed type hypersensitivity is another factor leading to herd allergies.
3. Due to individual differences and different conditions in pig herds, the degree of allergic reactions in pigs at different stages is different. Local pigs have strong adaptability and good physical resistance. Corresponding stress resistance is strong. Generally, allergies are unlikely to occur and the response to the vaccine is small. 种猪 、体质弱的猪，还有的猪群圈舍小，又没有运动地方，猪群拥挤，光照不好，环境很不卫生，在这样的条件下饲养的生猪也易导致疫苗过敏，当然有的个别的也不例外。 On the contrary, external breeding pigs , weak pigs, and herds are small and there is no place for exercise. The pigs are crowded, the lighting is poor, and the environment is unhygienic. Pigs raised under these conditions can easily cause vaccine allergies. Of course, some individual is no exception. Some pigs are very sensitive to the emergency response of the vaccine, and they are very likely to develop allergies.
In our local area, we are all free-range in rural areas. The basic immunity is to inject pig swine fever, porcine highly pathogenic blue ear disease, and foot-and-mouth disease vaccine at the same time as piglet castration. ;据我统计，PIC 公猪 和皮杜公猪作为父本配种生产的仔猪，发生应激反应就比其它公猪配的猪生产的仔猪要高得多， 2018年基础免疫仔猪4600余头，发生应激反应高达500余头，仅疫苗应急反应死亡多达48头，其中PIC公猪和杜洛克公猪配的猪生产的仔猪3000头，发生应激反应高达380余头，仅疫苗应激反应死亡多达36头，死亡率高达12%左右，有最急的抽针就死亡了，根本就来不及救治，还有的及时救治也没有任何效果，所以有的养殖户还说我们给猪打的是不是“毒”药，甚至怀疑疫苗质量是不是有问题。 If the herd of piglets is white in color or the whole body is red, in this case, any kind of vaccine will have an emergency response, and the mortality will be high, even if the rescue effect is not good immediately ; according to my statistics, PIC boars and skins Du boars, which are bred from males, have a much higher stress response than pigs from other boars. In 2018, more than 4,600 piglets were vaccinated, and the stress response was as high as 500. Up to 48 deaths from vaccine emergency response, of which 3,000 piglets produced by PIC and Duroc boars have a stress response of up to 380, and vaccine-only response deaths of up to 36 have a mortality rate of up to 36 About 12%, the most urgent needle was taken to death, there was no time for treatment, and the timely treatment did not have any effect, so some farmers also said that we gave pigs a "poison" medicine, and even doubted Is there a problem with vaccine quality? 母猪 生产的仔猪，自身就要对疫苗过敏反应，连续 4年8窝102头仔猪全部发生过敏反应，其中53头仔猪同时注射三种疫苗发生应激反应，经救治无效全部死亡，后面49头仔猪没有注射任何疫苗没有死亡1头。 I once encountered a piglet produced by a sow raised by a breeder and had an allergic reaction to the vaccine. All the 102 piglets in 8 litters for 4 years had allergic reactions, of which 53 piglets were injected with three vaccines at the same time. The irritant response, all died after the treatment was ineffective, the next 49 piglets did not receive any vaccine and did not die. There are also two sows raised by two farmers who are congenital allergic to vaccines. All vaccines must be allergic and must be treated. Piglets produced also have allergic reactions and cannot be vaccinated with any kind of vaccine. It can be seen that the pig's allergic constitution has a large allergic reaction to the vaccine and has a great impact on epidemic prevention.
4. The sow is vaccinated during pregnancy. The intermediate (bacteria) virus species or other components of the vaccine enter the fetus through the placenta and become allergens. After the piglets are born again, they will encounter an immune allergic reaction.
5. In the specific operation, there are many human factors, improper technical operations, improper injection sites, different depths, injection needles are not changed, syringes are not disinfected properly, vaccines are improperly stored, and the amount of vaccines injected does not meet regulations. The veterinary staff do not strictly use the vaccine according to the management of the vaccine. The vaccine, whether it is cell vaccine or oil vaccine, must be used strictly in accordance with the vaccine instruction manual. It is opened on the same day, diluted and prepared on the same day, and used on the same day. It cannot be used the next day. .
Comprehensive prevention measures
1. For allergic pigs, pour cold water on the pig's head, and immediately inject adrenaline hydrochloride injection, 1-2ml / head.
2. In severe cases, intramuscular injection with 1% atropine sulfate, 3 ml per pig and 1 ml per pig.
3. Pigs whose body temperature has risen to about 40 ℃ can be treated with dimi penicillin according to the size of the pig, and VB1, VC and isatis root, astragalus polysaccharide plus ceftiofur sodium, etc. can be used for pigs with poor appetite. treatment.
4. Minimize the number of outsiders when making vaccines. Keeping the environment quiet and reducing the stress response factors of pigs is conducive to preventing the occurrence of allergic reactions. There is also that swine fever, porcine highly pathogenic blue ear disease, and foot-and-mouth disease vaccine should not be immunized at the same time, and should be carried out at different times, or according to local actual conditions, the vaccine should be selectively injected.
5. Vigorously strengthen the operation and publicity of grass-roots epidemic prevention technology, effectively do a good job of epidemic prevention, attach importance to the technical training of grass-roots veterinary staff, increase investment in grass-roots epidemic prevention work, strengthen the establishment of grass-roots epidemic prevention teams, and fully mobilize the work-force enthusiasm and Responsibility, attach great importance to the work. Encourage farmers to fully support and cooperate with epidemic prevention work to ensure the healthy development of pig breeding.
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