This year, the price of pigs has risen very well. Pork is particularly "gold and expensive". Pig farmers are studying how to raise pigs carefully.
But in pig farms, there is a disease that causes headaches for pig farmers, because its early symptoms are very unremarkable-"the wall is arched."
We all know that pigs have the habit of foraging on the ground, and they always love to remove dead skin from their walls or troughs to clean the skin.
However, if the pigs regularly and high-frequencyly hoe the wall and dig the ground every day, they always use their hind hooves to tickle. Pig friends should pay attention to this. This may not be a matter of habit, but your pigs may have "pig mites." disease"
Swine chigger disease is highly contagious and will directly reduce the economic benefits of pig farms. However, pig chigger mite is a chronic, non-fatal disease, so it is often ignored by pig farmers.
1. Swine chigger mite
"Pig mite disease" is also called "mange disease", commonly known as "maniac disease". It is a parasitic skin disease caused by chigger mites parasitizing in the pig's skin and can be transmitted through contact.
It is worth mentioning that the chigger mites from eggs to development into adults are completed in the skin of the pig (the adult leaves) and the whole cycle is as short as 10 days and as long as more than 20 days, with an average of 15 days.
During this process, chigger mites draw lymph fluid, secrete toxins in the pig's skin, and even lay eggs again, resulting in erythema, pustules, scabs and other lesions on the pig's skin, which is very likely to cause pigs' stress reactions and is very harmful.
Second, the symptoms of chigger mites
After suffering from chigger mites in pigs, skin lesions appear, starting from the head, especially around the ears, eyes, nose, etc., with black hard palate (skin wrinkles or cracks), and then spread to the back, abdomen, tail and limbs Not only does the area of black crusts expand, the skin layer becomes thicker, but also large areas of erythema, eczema, etc.
Symptoms of chigger mite in pigs are very obvious-they are extremely itchy.
Therefore, the sick pig will often rub the diseased skin on the wall, floor, trough, etc. of the pigpen, or scratch it with the hoof, which will cause bleeding and hair loss at the lesion.
The rubbing of sick pigs everywhere has also led to the further spread of chigger eggs and worms.
Third, the harm of swine chigger mite
Pig friends know that pigs are most afraid of "pig stress." The itchiness caused by chigger mite disease can keep pigs agitated and under stress.
Poor rest is not good, and the appetite is greatly reduced. The food intake is reduced, resulting in slow growth and weight loss, which directly reduces the economic benefits of the pig farm. If sick pigs are not treated in time, they can also cause pig death in severe cases.
2. Increase pig farming costs
The increase in swine farming costs caused by chigger mites mainly includes two parts:
One is the damage to the infrastructure caused by the sick pigs rubbing against walls and floors;
Second, even if the sick pigs are cured after treatment, due to the weight loss of the pigs during the disease period, the pigs' slaughter time may be delayed, and the feeding costs will continue to increase.
3. Cause other diseases
Pigs are worn everywhere, which may cause local injuries to the limbs and other inflammation, such as causing abscesses. In addition, infection with pig chigger mite will also reduce the immunity of pigs, easily lead to diarrhea, cough, and easy to infect pigs such as Staphylococcus, Necrobacterium, and Eperythrozoonosis.
4. Reduce pork trading price
Even though pork prices are now rising, the symptoms of pig mite disease are mainly reflected on the skin. Even if it is cured in the end, the quality and appearance will deteriorate, so whether it is acquired or sold directly by friends, the price may be higher than the market. The price is low.
4. Causes of Swine Chigger Disease
1. Poor pen health conditions
Pork pens are generally poorly hygienic, which can easily breed chigger mite eggs.
Among them, pigs of various growth stages, breeds and genders may be infected with swine mites, but at present, it mainly occurs in fattening commercial pigs. Why is it not piglets? It is mainly because the piglets live a healthier environment than the living environment of fertile commercial pigs.
2. Insufficient sunshine and humid season
The turn of spring and summer and the turn of autumn and winter are the high-incidence periods of pig mite. In these two time periods, there is often insufficient sunshine, continuous rain and rain, and the humidity in the pig house is heavy and difficult to dissipate. In addition, if the pig hair is long and dense, it is very suitable for the breeding of chigger mites.
3. External introduction of chigger mites
If the farm is not self-propagating and self-supporting, pigs imported from other places need to be raised together with live pigs without inspection. It is very easy to introduce chigger parasites, and healthy pigs are in contact with sick pigs and easily infected. Chig mite.
4. Feces are piled up randomly, and cleaning is not timely
Needless to say, poultry manure is very easy to breed and isolate bacteria, and pig mite mites are no exception. If the manure is randomly stacked or not cleaned up in time, so that pigs have the opportunity to contact the manure, it is likely to cause infection and the spread of pathogens.
Fifth, the solution to swine chigger disease
1. Strengthen the hygiene of pig farms, piggeries and pigs
The pig farm should be disinfected regularly; the piggery should be kept clean, dry and ventilated; the pigs should be cleaned and disinfected systematically to reduce the chance of chigger mite infection and do a good job in deworming.
If sick pigs have been found, all feeding equipment, vehicles, pens, etc. that they have come into contact with should be disinfected uniformly to cut off the source of chigger mite infection.
2. Isolate and control the introduction of chigger mites
If pig farms need to introduce live pigs from other places, they must first be isolated and raised, and a fecal inspection performed by a professional institution to determine whether the pigs have parasitic mites. If sick pigs are found, deworming must be carried out at least twice, and inspections should be carried out again to ensure that there are no errors before transferring live pigs to the farm.
3. Isolate the sick pigs in time and take drug treatment
Swine chigger mites are contagious and are highly contagious diseases. If some pigs have some pre-existing symptoms of chigger mites in a pig farm, or if a pig friend suspects that they may have chigger mites, regardless of whether the diagnosis is confirmed, the pigs suspected of being infected must be isolated first, and then checked. If swine chigger disease is diagnosed, medication is required:
(1) oral medication
It can be added to the feed, such as ivermectin, avermectin, etc. The drug has little toxicity and does not affect the nutrition of the feed (the same applies to drinking water).
In order to absorb deworming drugs, it is recommended that pigs that should be sick before deworming should be fasted for at least 12 hours.
(2) Injection drugs
Ivermectin and avermectin are injected subcutaneously.
(3) Applying medication (spray or medicated bath)
Directly rub the affected area with 0.5% -1% trichlorfon solution, 0.05% bismethyl cream, 10% fencarpam or fenvalerate solution, twice a week for at least two weeks. It is recommended that before applying the medicine, shear the hair and remove the scalp, and finally wash the affected pigs thoroughly with soap and water, and then use the medicine after removing the dirt in order to exert the drug effect.
4. Harmless treatment of pig manure
In order to avoid the spread of pathogens, pig manure should be concentrated and buried in a dry place below 30cm. Fermentation can be promoted at 60-70 ° C by composting to kill chigger eggs and larvae in the feces.
Six, matters needing attention
1. Do you still need to observe after isolation, at least 3 weeks?
Regardless of the type of drug treatment, the cured pigs need to be observed in isolation for at least 3 weeks.
One is that there may be incomplete deworming.
The second is that when pig friends treat pig chigger mites, the drugs often used only have effects on adult chigger mites and are not useful for eggs. After taking the medicine once, it is easy to cause the illusion that the pig chigger mite disease is cured, but there are still hidden dangers. The eggs develop into adults again, and the pig chigger mite disease recurs.
Therefore, it is necessary to quarantine for a period of time, and after 1 to 2 weeks after the first phase of medication, even if the disease does not recur, a second phase of drug treatment is still needed to prevent recurrence.
2. Poisoning symptoms after drug treatment, not suitable for captivity
After medication, pig friends should always pay attention to the response of sick pigs. Poisoning symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea usually occur. At this time, without affecting the healthy pig herd, it is not appropriate to keep it in captivity, so that the sick pigs can keep free movement for a certain period of time. If necessary, drugs such as epinephrine can be injected to relieve the discomfort.
3. Swine chigger mite should be treated on the whole site
The treatment of pig chigger mites must be carried out in the whole farm or in one pig house at the same time, and uniform cleaning and spraying are required. Individual treatment will cause repeated occurrences of chigger mites.
Swine chigger mite disease is difficult to see at the beginning of the onset, and will not show until severe.
Therefore, the prevention of swine chigger mite should be based on prevention and supplemented by treatment.
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